Category:I802 Firewalls and VPN IPSec

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Firewalls and VPN/IPSec

General information

ECTS: 4

Lecturer: Lauri Võsandi


Scenario

In this course we will attempt to set up a network similar to a corporate network with multiple offices, eg http://docplayer.it/docs-images/20/596222/images/25-0.png

We will use VPN software to connect subnets to each other and we will use VPN software to connect our personal computers to the intranet.


Setting up virtual machine hosts

For this course we have 3 Sun servers, each with 16GB of RAM. In each server we should be able to create 3 or more virtual machines. As host operating system we will install Ubuntu 16.04 server. On disks set up ext4 on mdraid set up in RAID1 configuration.

For virtualization let's use libvirt and virt-manager on your Ubuntu laptops, for Windows and Mac unfortunately there is no decent UI available instead installing web interface such as Kimchi is recommended.

To install libvirt on the server:

 apt install libvirt-bin qemu-kvm

Also add the primary user to the libvirt group:

 sudo gpasswd -a $USER libvirt

On your laptop first set up SSH keys between the laptop and server with ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id. And then you can install virt-manager with:

 sudo apt install virt-manager

Copy CD ISO files into /var/lib/libvirt/images using scp or FileZilla.

Continue with creating a virtual machine for each service. For Windows 2012 server virtual machines use 2G of RAM and 50G of storage. For Ubuntu 16.04 server installations use 1G of memory and 50G storage. For Ubuntu 16.04 MATE desktop installations use 2G of RAM.


In order to set up virtual switch inside the server use Linux's built-in bridges, start with installing bridge-utils:

 apt install bridge-utils

Reconfigure your server's /etc/network/interfaces, replace X with number relevant to your server. Also replace eth0, eth1 and eth2 with the network interfaces available in your machine:

 # The loopback network interface
 auto lo
 iface lo inet loopback
 
 # Wide area network interface
 auto br-wan
 iface br-wan inet dhcp
   # Until we set up router in a VM we will use DHCP so we can have internet access in 417
   bridge_ports eth0
 
 # Local area network interface
 auto br-lan
 iface br-lan inet static
   address 172.16.X.1
   netmask 255.255.255.0
   bridge_ports eth1
 
 # Management interface
 auto eth2
 iface eth2 inet static
   address 192.168.12.1X
   netmask 255.255.255.0

When creating virtual machines, configure network as shown in the screenshot below:

Virt-manager bridges.png

This way your VM-s should be able to access the Internet as the physical machine can

Setting up router

On Wednesday 14. September we will configure OpenWrt as a router in a virtual machine. Download the OpenWrt image and uncompress it:

 cd /var/lib/libvirt/images/
 wget https://downloads.openwrt.org/chaos_calmer/15.05-rc3/x86/kvm_guest/openwrt-15.05-rc3-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz
 gunzip openwrt-15.05.1-x86-kvm_guest-combined-ext4.img.gz

Add second network interface to your router's VM. Configure first NIC as connected to br-wan and second one connected to br-lan.

After that you should end up with topology similar to this:

Topology-inside-server.png

To clarify: 'srv1.office' and 'srv2.office' are the Ubuntu 16.04 servers, you should have configured static IP addresses or set a static lease from the router. The 'router.office' refers to the OpenWrt router you just set up. The router serves IP addresses using DHCP to 'ubuntu-mate.office' Ubuntu MATE 16.04 workstation and 'windows.office' refers to Windows workstation. Your physical server 'host.office' can be accessed as well. The 'office' throughout the diagram refers to your domain name, use abbrevations such as hq, rnd, devops for that.


Domain names

Arti will be your DNS registrar (like Godaddy or Zone.ee). Currently added DNS records:

(Re)configure your services to make use of these DNS records.

Monitoring

Use this **only** on the physical hosts.

You can (ab)use Lauri's collectd at http://log.koodur.com/cgp

Install packages:

 apt install collectd

Reconfigure service in /etc/collectd/collectd.conf:

 FQDNLookup true
 LoadPlugin syslog
 LoadPlugin cpu
 LoadPlugin df
 LoadPlugin disk
 LoadPlugin interface
 LoadPlugin load
 LoadPlugin memory
 LoadPlugin network
 LoadPlugin processes
 LoadPlugin swap
 LoadPlugin uptime
 LoadPlugin users
 LoadPlugin dns
 LoadPlugin ping
 LoadPlugin sensors
 
 <Plugin df>
 	FSType rootfs
 	FSType sysfs
 	FSType proc
 	FSType devtmpfs
 	FSType devpts
 	FSType tmpfs
 	FSType fusectl
 	FSType cgroup
 	IgnoreSelected true
 </Plugin>
 
 <Plugin disk>
 	Disk "/[sv]d[a-z]/"
 </Plugin>
  
 <Include "/etc/collectd/collectd.conf.d">
 	Filter "*.conf"
 </Include>
 
 <Plugin network>
   Server "185.94.112.74"
 </Plugin>

Teams

Headquarters

Gateway: 193.40.194.220

DNS: 193.40.0.12, 193.40.56.245

Public IP address (port no 0 = enp6s4f0): 193.40.194.160/24

Management network IP address (port no 1 = enp6s4f1), accessible from robotics club: 192.168.12.10

Internal IP address of the physical server (port no 2 = enp0s9): 172.16.1.1/24

Services:

  • Hypervisor, access to physical box - (Mohanad)
  • BIND9 as public DNS server, also figure out what domain name we should/can use (Arti)
  • domain controller, at this point primarily for user accounts (Keijo)
  • nginx web server, for company's homepage (Etienne)
  • SMB/CIFS fileserver, join to domain (Etienne)
  • VPN server for other subnets, presumably OpenVPN (Mohanad Aly)

Research & development

Gateway: 193.40.194.220

DNS: 193.40.0.12, 193.40.56.245

Public IP address (port no 0 = enp6s4f0): 193.40.194.161/24

Management network IP address (port no 1 = enp6s4f1), accessible from robotics club: 192.168.12.11

Internal IP address of the physical server (port no 2 = enp0s9): 172.16.2.1/24

Team members: Marvin, Madis, Taavi, Berit, Joosep

Services:

Examples

Port forwarding example, we have 2 linux virtual machines, one forwarding to host local ip. Vpn-portForwarding.png

Network interface example file:

 auto lo
 iface lo inet loopback
 
 # Wide area network interface (port 0)
 auto br-wan
 iface br-wan inet manual
   bridge_ports enp6s4f0
 
 # Local area network interface (port 3)
 auto br-lan
 iface br-lan inet static
   address 172.16.2.1
   gateway 172.16.2.254
   dns-nameserver 172.16.2.254
   netmask 255.255.255.0
   bridge_ports enp0s8
 
 # Management interface (port 1)
 auto enp6s4f1
 iface enp6s4f1 inet static
   address 192.168.12.11
   netmask 255.255.255.0

Openwrt interface file working example /etc/config/network:

 config interface 'lan'
       option ifname 'eth0'
       option type 'bridge'
       option proto 'static'
       option netmask '255.255.255.0'
       option ip6assign '60'
       option ipaddr '172.16.2.254'
 
 config interface 'wan'
       option ifname 'eth1'
       option proto 'static'
       option ipaddr '193.40.194.161'
       option gateway '193.40.194.220'
       option netmask '255.255.255.0'
       option dns '192.40.0.12 193.40.56.245'


To create poor man's vpn. Install on your computer

 apt install sshuttle

and connection.

 sshuttle --dns -HNvr username@server:port

no you should be able to connect local network computers and services. NB! ping is not working with sshuttle you can read more here http://teohm.com/blog/using-sshuttle-in-daily-work/

TODO

Devops

Gateway: 193.40.194.220

DNS: 193.40.0.12, 193.40.56.245

Public IP address (port no 0 = enp6s4f0): 193.40.194.162/24

Management network IP address (port no 1 = enp6s4f1), accessible from robotics club: 192.168.12.12

Internal IP address of the physical server (port no 2 = enp0s9): 172.16.3.1/24

Services:

  • Hypervisor, access to physical box - Artur O
  • IRC, for chatting (Meelis Hass)
  • Etherpad for collaborating (Sheela)
  • Certificate management for roadwarriors, usecase number #1 (Artur O)
  • Monitoring software of your choice to make sure that services are up and running, possibly use LDAP for authentication (Artur O)
  • E-mail for sending notifications from monitoring software at first (Ilja), this needs MX records in DNS (Ilja, Mohanad helps)
  • Later, in the beginning just monitor public services: OpenVPN connection to headquarters

Pentest

Find security issues in the deployed services, attempt to plant backdoors, malware etc.

Team members: Kustas, Ender


Point-to-point tunnels between routers

Since routers are the default route for all the internal machines the easiest way to set up routing between internal networks is to set up OpenVPN instances on each router.

In router install OpenVPN module for OpenWrt:

 opkg update
 opkg install luci-app-openvpn openvpn-openssl

In the OpenWrt web interface there should pop up Services section with OpenVPN underneath it.

The topology for routers:

Point-to-point.png


For each tunnel configure on one end "Simple server configuration for a routed point-to-point VPN" and on the other end "Simple client configuration for a routed point-to-point VPN" the configuration for connection on hq could look something like this:

Openwrt-openvpn-config.png

To upload secret select secret under --Additional fields-- and hit add. To generate secret use following command on your laptop:

 openvpn --genkey --secret static.key

Under Switch to advanced configuration --> Networking add route field for each subnet you want to make accessible via that tunnel. For each tunnel a new interface pops up under Interfaces section. Assign firewall rules as appropriate. To test I guess you can just insert the interface into LAN zone.

Generating certificates

To generate key:

 openssl genrsa -out lauri-c720p.key 4096

To generate signing request:

 openssl req -new -key lauri-c720p.key -out lauri-c720p.csr

To sign the request:

 openssl ca -config ca.cnf -in lauri-c720p.csr -extensions client_cert -out lauri-c720p.crt

To dump certificate contents in human-readable format:

 openssl x509 -in lauri-c720p.crt -noout -text

To test web server's TLS configuration:

 openssl s_client -connect www.koodur.com:443

To make a HTTP request as well:

 (echo -en "GET / HTTP/1.0\n\n"; sleep 1) | openssl s_client -connect www.koodur.com:443

See here for more about Estonian ID-card certificates: https://www.sk.ee/en/repository/ldap/ldap-kataloogi-kasutamine/

Remote logging

In order to send logs to Graylog server, put those lines into new file: /etc/rsyslog.d/client.conf

 $ActionQueueType LinkedList
 $ActionQueueFileName srvrfwd
 $ActionResumeRetryCount -1
 $ActionQueueSaveOnShutdown on
 *.* @@172.16.3.228:1514

and then restart the service:

 sudo service rsyslog restart

Internal DNS


Boring stuff

Report template

Send report as a plaintext e-mail to Lauri, in the title include: Report #number - your name - your team

In the content make sure you specify the timespan you're talking about (September of 2016, first half of October 2016 etc)

The content, no need for formal speech:

  • What have been done so far by the team (eg. server hardware setup, virtual machine setup, service setup)
  • What was your role for this timespan, note that we will shuffle the teams now and then
  • What was your contribution, or in other words what did you do during this timespan
  • What (security) incidents happened - red team found messing around with the servers, passwords changed, backdoor found etc.

September wrapup & iptables lecture

Lecture slides video recording

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