Ipkungfu Tulemüür

From ICO wiki

Sissejuhatus

Artikli eesmärgiks on tutvustada ipkungfu tulemüüri, anda ülevaade rakenduse paigaldamisest, konfigureerimisest ning haldamisest.

Eeldused

Artikli koostamisel on testimiseks kasutatud Ubuntu v.12.04 LTS tarkvara.

Mis on Ipkungfu

Tegemist on iptables[1] baasil loodud, kuid lihtsustatud Linuxi tulemüüriga mis hõlbustab võrguliikluse administreerimist. Rakendus töötab iptables ja sysctl baasil. Võib öelda, et tegemist on iptables liidesega mis on omakorda kerneli tulemüürimooduli Netfilter'i kasutajaliides. Tänu lihtsale menüüle sobib rakendus nii algajale kui eksperdile. Toote trumpideks peetakse: [2]

  • Turvalisust
  • Lihtsat hallatavust
  • Jõudlust


Tänu Linuxi kerneli võimekusele leiab tarkvara laialdast rakendust ning toetab [3]

  • Võrguühenduse jagamist
  • Virtualhoste
  • IP suunamist
  • IP maskimist
  • Logide jälgmist ning kontrollimist


Eelised: [4]

  • Võimalik kiiresti paigaldada ning koheselt kasutama hakata
  • Seadistamine lihtne ning vähe aega nõudev
  • Ei vaja töötavat teenust ega erilisi teadmisi


Paigaldamine

Tulemüür töötab iptables ja sysctl baasil. Võib öelda, et tegemist on iptables liidesega mis on kerneli tulemüürimooduli Netfilter'i kasutajaliides. Konfiguratsiooni failid asuvad kaustas /etc/ipkungfu (lisa conf fail?) mida on võimalik vastavalt soovile muuta.[5]

  • Enne installimist uuenda olemasolevaid pakette [6]
sudo apt-get update
  • Installi tarkvara
sudo apt-get install ipkungfu
  • ipkungfu käivitamine
sudo ipkungfu
  • ipkungfu rakenduse peatamine
ipkungfu -d

Seadistamine

Konfiguratsiooni failid asuvad kaustas /etc/ipkungfu mida on võimalik vastavalt soovile muuta.[7]

  • Ava fail /etc/ipkungfu/ipkungfu.conf [8]
nano /etc/ipkungfu/ipkungfu.conf
  • Muudan faili vastavalt soovile. Testis tegin järgmised muudatused failis:[9]
# Set the path to ipkungfu's runtime error log.
# Default: /var/log/ipkungfu.log
IPKUNGFU_LOG=/var/log/ipconfig.log
  • Määran IP vahemiku
# IP Range of your internal network.  Use "127.0.0.1"
# for a standalone machine.  Default is a reasonable
# guess. Separate multiple ranges with spaces.
LOCAL_NET="192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0"
  • Eemaldan kommentaari
# Set this to 0 for a standalone machine, or 1 for
# a gateway device to share an Internet connection.
# Default is 1.
GATEWAY=1
  • Määran keelatud pordid
# Temporarily block future connection attempts from an
# IP that hits these ports (If module is present)
# Hits to these ports will be logged as "BADGUY" hits
# regardless of log.conf settings.
FORBIDDEN_PORTS="135 137 139"
  • Keelan PING paketid:
# Drop all ping packets?
# Set to 1 for yes, 0 for no. Default is no.
BLOCK_PINGS=1
  • Keelan ebaturvalised paketid:
# What to do with 'probably malicious' packets
#SUSPECT="REJECT"
SUSPECT="DROP"
  • Keelan vale liikluse:
# What to do with obviously invalid traffic
# This is also the action for FORBIDDEN_PORTS
KNOWN_BAD="REJECT"
  • Keelan portide skaneeringu:
# What to do with port scans
#PORT_SCAN="REJECT"
PORT_SCAN="DROP"


  • Tulemüüri automaatseks käivitamiseks ava järgnev fail ning muuda seadistust: [10]
nano /etc/default/ipkungfu
#IPKFSTART=0
IPKFSTART=1


Parameetrid

Võimalused:[11]

      -c  (or  --check)
                  Check whether ipkungfu is loaded, and  report  any  command
                  line options it may have been loaded with.
      -t  (or  --test)
                  Runs  a configuration test, and displays the results.  Note
                  that this  does  not  test  or  display  all  configuration
                  options.   This  gives  you  an  opportunity to verify that
                  major configuration options are correct before putting them
                  into action.
      -l  (or  --list)
                  Displays the iptable rule set.
      -d  (or  --disable)
                  Disables  the  firewall.   It  is important to know exactly
                  what this option does.  All traffic is allowed in and  out,
                  and  in  the  case  of  a  gateway,  all  NATed  traffic is
                  forwarded  (the  option  retains  your  connection  sharing
                  options).    Custom   rules   are   not   implemented,  and
                  deny_hosts.conf is ignored.
      -f  (or  --flush)
                  Disables the firewall COMPLETELY.  All rules  are  flushed,
                  all  chains  are  removed.  Any port forwarding or internet
                  connection sharing will cease to work.
      -h  (or  --help)
                  Displays brief usage information and exits.
      -v  (or  --version)
                  Displays version information and exits.
      --quiet     Runs ipkungfu with no standard output
      --panic     Drops  ALL  traffic  in  all  directions  on  all   network
                  interfaces.   You  should  probably  never use this option.
                  The --panic option is  available  for  the  highly  unusual
                  situation where you know that an attack is underway but you
                  know of no other way to stop it.
      --failsafe  If ipkungfu  fails,  --failsafe  will  cause  all  firewall
                  policies  to revert to ACCEPT.  This is useful when working
                  with ipkungfu remotely, to prevent loss  of  remote  access
                  due to firewall failure.
      --no-caching
                  Disables rules caching feature.


  • Konfiguratsioonifailide asukohad: [12]
    • /etc/ipkungfu/ipkungfu.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/advanced.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/accept_hosts.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/deny_hosts.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/custom.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/log.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/redirect.conf
    • /etc/ipkungfu/services.conf
    • /usr/sbin/ipkungfu


  • ReadMe ja FAQ dokumendid leiab kaustast: [13]
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu/AUTHORS
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu/README
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu/FAQ
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu/ChangeLog
    • /usr/share/doc/ipkungfu/COPYING


There are several configuration files, each one corresponding to a specific
function or set of functions.
Advanced users or those with more complex networks will want to edit most or
all of these files. They are located in /etc/ipkungfu/ and are:
accept_hosts.conf : IP addresses of hosts or nets to always ACCEPT and
optionally the ports they are allowed to access
advanced.conf : Configuration settings for advanced users.
custom.conf : Here you will find sample rules several sample rules already
predefined.  This is where you would add any custom rules you want applied
to your firewall.  This file is parsed first, before any other rules are
added by ipkungfu, to ensure that none of ipkungfu's rules override the
rules in this file.
deny_hosts.conf : You can list IP addresses/subnets:ports:protocols you wish
to block completely.  This file is parsed before accept_hosts.conf and takes
precedence over it.
ipkungfu.conf : This is the main configuration file.  Edit this file, if
nothing else.  For most people, this is the only file that needs to be
 edited to set up a decent firewall, with or without Internet connection
sharing.
WARNING: ALLOW_TCP_IN and ALLOW_UDP_IN are now deprecated and mantained only
for backward compatability. Now use services.conf.
log.conf : This file specifies what the firewall will log and the rate at
which it is logged. By default, nearly all dropped packets are logged.
To turn logging off on a particular item, change the 1 (log) to a
0 (don't log). The default location of the log on most systems is
/var/log/syslog.  Consult your syslogd configuration to find out where
kernel logs are stored.
redirect.conf : Use this file to specify where certain traffic should be
routed on the SAME machine. If you want to redirect ports that come in on
one port, and should go to another, set them up here. There is a single
entry here that is commented out by default- tcp:443:10000 which
redirects incoming https traffic on port 443 to webmin on port 10000.
Please see the file for more information.
vhosts.conf : If you have virtual hosts, (servers on machines behind your
gateway), define the routing rules here.  This file makes it possible to
have servers behind the firewall, with private IP addresses, accessible
from the Internet.
pre.conf : This is parsed and executed as a bash script prior to running
ipkungfu.
post.conf : This is parsed and executed as a bash script after ipkungfu
has completed execution.
services.conf : Here you keep all of your rules previously defined in
ipkungfu.conf as ALLOW_TCP_IN and ALLOW_UDP_IN, plus more. Edit the file,
it's self explanatory.
Most people, especially those with very simple configurations, will only
need to edit /etc/ipkungfu/ipkungfu.conf if anything at all.  As of 0.5.1
ipkungfu does a lot of detecting and guessing for the main configuration
parameters unless you specify their values in ipkungfu.conf.  This should
work for most people.  To go over the list of variables as ipkungfu
knows them, run ipkungfu --show-vars.  If anything looks wrong, edit the
appropriate configuration file accordingly.
A "#" is a comment. When a line begins with #, the whole line is ignored. If
you want enable an option in a configuration file that is commented out,
simply remove the leading #. If you wish to remove an option, place a #
in front of that line.
Note that anytime you edit a configuration file, you MUST rerun the ipkungfu
as outlined below in order for changes to take effect.
ipkungfu
Most problems can be resolved by checking your settings in your configuration 
files.
Many users overlook certain settings, so you may want to double-check them to 
be sure.
Remember to run ipkungfu again (/usr/local/sbin/ipkungfu) after making any 
changes to the configuration files (located in /etc/ipkungfu/).
Please see the FAQ for more troubleshooting issues and resolutions.

Testimine

  • Ühenduste testimiseks kasutasin ShieldUP-i[15]
ExposureTest.jpg

Kokkuvõte

Ipkungfu on linuxi tulemüür mille konfigureerimine käib tabelite baasil, mis sisaldavad endas pakettide filtreerimiseks ning suunamiseks vajalike reegleid. Seadistamine võttis vähe aega ning oli arusaadav.

Kasutatud kirjandus

Koostas

Heiko Niidas AK-31, 2015