Difference between revisions of "Gnome"

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== Running ==
 
== Running ==
 
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Et Gnome Shell käivitada pärast paigaldust, tuleb siseneda jhbuild shelli ja käivitada installeeritud binaar:
To run gnome-shell after a build, enter a jhbuild shell, and run the installed binary:
 
  
 
{|style="background:#a7f0d2; border:1px solid #BABABA; width:500px; margin:3px;" align=centre
 
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gnome-shell --replace"  
 
gnome-shell --replace"  
 
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== Gnome distributsioonidel ==
 
== Gnome distributsioonidel ==

Revision as of 19:48, 15 December 2012


Mis on Gnome?

Gnome on üks kahest tuntuimast graafilisest kasutajaliidesest (GUI) Linuxile(Teine hästi tuntud liides on KDE). Täpsemalt on tegu integreeritud tarkvaraga varustatud töölaua keskkonnaga, mis on mingilmääral Mac'i ja UNIX'i moodi. Seetõttu kasutavad Gnome paljud, kes on eelnevalt olnud Maci peal ja siis Linuxile üle läinud, sest see on neile tuttavam ja mugavam. Koos Gnome'ga tuleb kaasa omajagu aplikatsioone mida saab kasutada ka teistes keskkondades. See tähendab, et antud programmid kasutavad teatud library funktsioone, mis on antud töölaua keskkonna alustes olemas. Järelikult saab Gnome'i programme avade ka mõne muu Window Manageriga või Töölauaga(desktop). Gnome-based Linuxi distributsioone on peale Ubuntu veel mitmeid, näiteks Fedora, CentOS, Linux Mint, Mandriva.


Window Manager

Window manager(aknahaldaja) on süsteemi tarkvara mis kontrollib akende paigutust ja väljanägemist akende süsteemis graafilises kasutajaliideses. Enamus window manageritest on disainitud aitamaks tagada töölaua keskkonda. Nad töötavad koos aluseks oleva graafilise süsteemiga mis tagab vajaliku funktsionaalsustoe graafilisele riistvarale, juhtseadmetele ja klaviatuurile ning on tihti kirjutatud ja loodud kasutades widget toolkit'i.

Sawfish

Sawfish on pikendatav window manager mis kasutab Lisp'ipõhist skriptimiskeelt. Selle poliis on üsna minimaalne võrreldes paljude teiste window manageridega. Sawfishi eesmärk on hallata aknaid kõige paindlikumal ja atraktiivsemal viisil mis võimalik. Kõik kõrge tasemega window manager funktsioonid on realiseeritud Lispis laiendamiseks ja taasmääratlemiseks tulevikus.

  • Jõuline nupusiduvus - Sawfishi poolt tagatud igat virtuaalset funktsiooni on võimalik piiritleda klavi nuppudega.
  • Sündmuste vastuvõtmine - Paljude sündmuste jaoks (akende liigutamine jms.) on võimalik kustomiseerida kuidas Sawfish käitub.
  • Akende sobivus - Kui aknad on loodud, saab kasutaja neid kokku sobitada oma suva järgi ja automaatselt nende peal tegumeid sooritada.
  • Paindlik teema - Sawfish lubab luua paljusi erinevaid kujundusteemasi ja samas on saadaval variatsioon kolmanda-partei kujundusteemasi.

Metacity

Metacity, Gnome 2 Window Manager, kasutab GTK+ graafilist tööriistakomplekti. GTK+ ehk GIMP Toolkit on rist-platvorm tööriistapagas mille abil luuakse graafiline kasutajakeskkond. Metacity kasutab seda loomaks oma kasutajale kasutajaliidese komponendid, mis teevad selle teemapäraseks ja sulandab selle kokku koos teiste GTK+ aplikatsioonidega. Metacity märksõnadeks on lihtsus ja kasutatavus mitte uudsus nagu Gnome 3 Mutteri puhul.

  • Session management - Metacity connects to the session manager and will set itself up to

be respawned. It theoretically restores sizes/positions/workspace for session-aware applications.

  • Metacity implements much of the EWMH window manager specification

from freedesktop.org, as well as the older ICCCM. Please refer to the COMPLIANCE file for information on metacity compliance with these standards.

  • Uses Pango to render text, so has cool i18n capabilities.

Supports UTF-8 window titles and such.

  • There are simple animations for actions such as minimization,

to help users see what is happening. Should probably have a few more of these and make them nicer.

  • if you have the proper X setup, set the GDK_USE_XFT=1

environment variable to get antialiased window titles.

  • considers the panel when placing windows and maximizing

them.

  • handles the window manager selection from the ICCCM. Will exit if

another WM claims it, and can claim it from another WM if you pass the --replace argument. So if you're running another ICCCM-compliant WM, you can run "metacity --replace" to replace it with Metacity.

  • does basic colormap handling

art.gnome.org.

Mutter

Mutter is the window manager for which GNOME Shell is a plugin in GNOME 3, replacing Metacity. (The name "Mutter" is a contraction of "Metacity Clutter" Mutter uses a graphics library called Clutter, and also supports OpenGL by Clutter.) The Mutter window manager can function as standalone window manager application for GNOME-like desktops, and serves as the primary window manager for the GNOME Shell desktop, which is an integral part of GNOME 3. Mutter is extensible with plugins and supports numerous visual effects.

Gnome Shell

Gnome Shell on Gnome'i töölaua keskkonna kasutajaliidese tuum alates kolmandast versioonist, mis toodi lagedale 6. aprill 2011. See tagab algelised funktsioonid nagu akende vahetamine ja aplikatsioonide käivitamine ja asendab Gnome paneeli ja teised tarkvara komponendid Gnome 2-st pakkumaks kasutajakogemust mis on erinev eelmistest mudelitest eelmistest versioonidest. Gnome Shell kasutab Mutterit, window manageri, mis põhineb Metacity window manageril ja Clutter'i toolkitil, tagamaks visuaalsed effektid ja riistvara kiirenduse. GNOME Shell uses Mutter, a compositing window manager based on the Metacity window manager, and the Clutter toolkit to provide visual effects and hardware acceleration. According to GNOME Shell maintainer Owen Taylor, it is set up as a Mutter plugin largely written in JavaScript. It takes advantage of the capabilities of modern graphics hardware and introduces innovative user interface concepts to provide a delightful and easy to use experience. GNOME Shell is the defining technology of the GNOME 3 user experience.

Shelli tunnused

Shelli moodulite paigaldus

GNOME Shell JHBuild builds a number of modules that GNOME Shell requires, as well as the gnome-shell module itself.

JHBuild enables you to run GNOME Shell in a sandbox environment and doesn't install it globally on your system, so there is no need to run GNOME Shell inside a virtual machine. To run GNOME Shell inside a virtual machine would require good 3D support, and we don't know of any virtualization system that can handle it. In particular, problems have been reported with the GNOME Shell and the 3D support in VirtualBox.

To start with this, download and run the setup script:

curl -O http://git.gnome.org/browse/gnome-shell/plain/tools/build/gnome-shell-build-setup.sh

/bin/bash gnome-shell-build-setup.sh"


The script creates an example ~/.jhbuildrc-custom with some comments about things you may want to change. Edit that as desired.

Before building GNOME Shell and the desktop, it's worthwhile to install as many development packages from your distribution. First, it's highly recommended that you update your system. GNOME Shell is under active development, and requires up to date system libraries. You should be able to find "Update Manager" or "Software Updates" somewhere on your computer.

Second, install all of the development packages required for GNOME Shell to build. Use jhbuild's sysdeps command to do that:

jhbuild sysdeps --install"

This should install or tell you how to install all packages on your system that GNOME Shell requires.

Now you can build the modules GNOME Shell depends on and the GNOME Shell module itself. This will take a while as there are several dozen modules being built.

jhbuild build"

The above is supposed to work reliably, but check the list of commonly encountered problems if it doesn't. Also feel free to ask for help on the IRC channel.

If you have successfully built in the past, but it suddenly stops working, try:

jhbuild build -afc"

which will force it to rebuild everything from scratch.

While developing, for instance to rebuild the gnome-shell component without its libs, from the current git branch that is not the master branch,

jhbuild buildone -n gnome-shell"

should build the one gnome-shell component without switching/pulling git branches.

Running

Et Gnome Shell käivitada pärast paigaldust, tuleb siseneda jhbuild shelli ja käivitada installeeritud binaar:

jhbuild shell

gnome-shell --replace"

Gnome distributsioonidel

Kasutatud kirjandus

1) http://www.brighthub.com/computing/linux/articles/46636.aspx

2) http://www.brighthub.com/computing/linux/articles/75743.aspx#

3) http://linuxreviews.org/software/desktops/

4) http://git.gnome.org/browse/metacity/plain/README

5) http://sawfish.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

6) https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/Extensions

7) http://www.dedoimedo.com/computers/gnome-3-fallback.html